特洛伊(Troy)─ 考古史上的永恆傳奇

請聯結以下  閱讀

http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/1/8/22/c3675.htm

在古希臘文明的全盛時期(公元前700年~前200年),特洛伊戰爭被視為希臘人早期的一段歷史,阿契裡斯和阿側門農都是古希臘文化中的英雄,特洛伊也被譽為古希臘人獲得輝煌勝利的地方。
據說,亞歷山大大帝在公元前334年進軍攻打波斯人的途中,在特洛伊城作短暫停留,為曾經幫助希臘人戰勝特洛伊人的神靈獻祭。像他那個時代的其他人一樣,亞歷山大大帝把荷馬史詩中的每一個故事情節都視為史實。至於荷馬,傳說他是一位古希臘的吟遊盲詩人,是位富於靈感的編年史家。後來,當羅馬人興起而統治了地中海沿岸國家時。他們對特洛伊故事十分感興趣,
他們稱特洛伊為伊爾昂,還興建了一個叫新伊利昂的城市(新特洛伊),該城位於小亞細亞西北部他們所認為的古特洛伊所在地,也就是現在的土耳其境內。然而在公元6世紀時,
羅馬人已經離開了小亞細亞,這座城市就已經廢棄不用了;所以迄今為止,沒有人能確切知道特洛伊在當時究竟位於何處。

到了19世紀,特洛伊和特洛伊戰爭不再被認為是歷史;它們被視為模糊不清的神話或傳奇。《伊裡亞特》和《奧德賽》雖然仍被視為文學的初期經典之作,但是沒有西方人真正相信它們是真實的了。學者們甚至開始懷疑有沒有荷馬這個人。他們推測這些詩不是出自一位詩人之手,而是許多詩人的共同之作;在漫長的歲月裡,這麼多位詩人將這些詩不斷加以潤色,並系統地記錄下來,並以故事形式代代相傳。歷史學家只能將古希臘文明追溯到公元前8世紀。
在那之前,愛琴海周圍的土地似乎是居在著貧困、不識字的農民。這就是說,在模糊不清的史前時期,根本沒有荷馬史詩中的繁華城市和掌管著大權的國王。在1822年,這種看法十分流行;也就是在這一年,考古學家謝裡曼在德國出生。

《芝加哥亞述辭海》Chicago Assyrian Dictionary

耗時90年 亞述辭海終問世 黃文正/綜合報導  耗時九十寒暑,由芝加哥大學和世界各國數代學者傳承接棒、竭盡心力考據而成的《芝加哥亞述辭海》(The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary)近日終告問世,讓世人得以一窺兩千多年前人類文明的搖籃美索不達米亞(兩河流域)的風貌。  這項計畫始於一九二一年,芝加哥大學一群學者試圖藉由於伊拉克、伊朗、敘利亞和土耳其等地古代遺跡,挖掘出土的黏土或石碑上的古文字,重現佚失逾兩千年的古代亞述語辭典。只不過,當時他們並沒料想到,這部辭典最終竟要花上九十年才得以完成。  由於考據工作繁瑣,且僅使用打字機、油印機和索引卡(近兩百萬張)等非科技工具,以致進度緩慢延宕,曠日費時。而隨著時間流逝,數代學者傳承接棒,研究團隊也逐漸擴大,包括以色列、法國、奧地利和丹麥等國學者都陸續加入。  《芝加哥亞述辭海》共有廿一卷,年代上起西元兩千四百年前,下迄西元後一百年,涵蓋閃米特語系的阿卡德語(Akkadian),亞述語則是阿卡德語的一種方言。  這本辭典其實比較類似百科全書,讀者將可透過包括情書、食譜、繳稅紀錄、醫療處方、天文觀測紀錄、宗教文件和詩篇等文字,領略古代美索不達米亞文化的樣貌。  耗時九十年光陰來製作這樣龐大的工作,芝加哥大學東方研究中心主任史坦指出,美索不達米亞是人類都市文明的起源,對文化影響源遠流長。如果我們想瞭解自己的根源,就應該好好認識這個偉大的文明。

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD) or The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago is a multi-decade project at the University of Chicago‘s Oriental Institute to compile a dictionary of the Akkadian language and its dialects, focusing on the New-Assyrian forms. Modeled on the Oxford English Dictionary, work on the project was initiated in 1921 by James Henry Breasted, who had previously worked on the Berlin dictionary of Ancient Egyptian. From 1973 to 1996 Erica Reiner was editor in charge, followed by Martha Roth.[1] Expected to take 10 years to complete, the first volume was not published until 1956, and the 27th and final volume was not published until 2007.[2] The project is currently focused on updating the dictionary based on new finds and digitizing the contents.[2] It is one of several large-scale American dictionary projects for ancient Middle Eastern languages, including the Chicago Hittite Dictionary, the Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, and the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon.[3]

 

http://youtu.be/HDrskXNJ63I

書單

Further
readings

l
528.982 8449 97 神話與競技 : 古希臘體育運動與奧林匹克賽會起源 : sport and games in ancient Greece

l
528.982
8665 97 奧運的歷史 : 從古代奧運到現代奧運的復興

l
740.215 867 100 生活在古希臘 : 從大英博物館館藏看古希臘人的生活與他們的世界 =
The Ancient Greeks / 亞歷珊卓.維林(Alexandra
Villing) ; 黃中憲譯

l
740.215 8472 92 希臘古文明

 引經據典說英文 . 希臘羅馬篇 / Michael Macrone著 ; Tom Lulevitch插圖 ; 呂健忠譯  805.121 8594 88

Parthenon

Art History in a Hurry – Parthenon

ParthenonThe temple of Athena, the Virgin (“parthenos” in Greek) Goddess,
protector of Athens, at the top of the Acropolis. Its construction, on the site
of two earlier temples to Athena Parthenos, the second of which was yet
unfinished when it was destroyed by the Persians in 480 B. C., was ordered by Pericles and took 10 years, from 447 to 438 B. C., date of
its inauguration during the Panathenæa of that year, but the decoration was not
completed until 432. The architects who built it
were Ictinus and Callicrates, working under the leadership of Phidias, a friend
and art councelor of Pericles, who sculpted the chryselephantine (meaning
“plated with gold (“chrusos” in Greek) and ivory (“elephas,
elephantos
” in Greek)”) statue of Athena that was inside the temple (Thucydides tells us in his Histories,
II, 13, 5
, that forty talents of pure gold had been used for the plating of
the statue, and could be removed in case of financial need).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDtkzLgtVTg&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVgfAd1Yz6M

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm

Ancient Tablet Found: Oldest Readable Writing in Europe

Found at a site tied to myth, Greek tablet survived only by accident, experts say.

 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110330-oldest-writing-europe-tablet-greece-science-mycenae-greek/ 

Names and numbers fill the back (pictured) of the tablet fragment, found last summer in Greece.

Photograph courtesy Christian Mundigler

  

Marks on a clay tablet fragment found in Greece are the oldest known decipherable text in Europe, a new study says.

Considered “magical or mysterious” in its time, the writing survives only because a trash heap caught fire some 3,500 years ago, according to researchers.

Found in an olive grove in what’s now the village of Iklaina (map), the tablet was created by a Greek-speaking Mycenaean scribe between 1450 and 1350 B.C., archaeologists say.

The Mycenaeans—made legendary in part by Homer’s Iliad, which fictionalizes their war with Troy—dominated much of Greece from about 1600 B.C. to 1100 B.C. (See “Is Troy True? The Evidence Behind Movie Myth.”)

So far, excavations at Iklaina have yielded evidence of an early Mycenaean palace, giant terrace walls, murals, and a surprisingly advanced drainage system, according to dig director Michael Cosmopoulos.

But the tablet, found last summer, is the biggest surprise of the multiyear project, Cosmopoulos said.

“According to what we knew, that tablet should not have been there,” the University of Missouri-St. Louis archaeologist told National Geographic News.

First, Mycenaean tablets weren’t thought to have been created so early, he said. Second, “until now tablets had been found only in a handful of major palaces”—including the previous record holder, which was found among palace ruins in what was the city of Mycenae.

Although the Iklaina site boasted a palace during the early Mycenaean period, by the time of the tablet, the settlement had been reduced to a satellite of the city of Pylos, seat of King Nestor, a key player in the Iliad.

“This is a rare case where archaeology meets ancient texts and Greek myths,” Cosmopoulos said in a statement.

Tablet Preserved by Cooking

The markings on the tablet fragment—which is roughly 1 inch ( 2.5 centimeters) tall by 1.5 inches (4 centimeters) wide—are early examples of a writing system known as Linear B.

Used for a very ancient form of Greek, Linear B consisted of about 87 signs, each representing one syllable. (Related: “New Layer of Ancient Greek Writings Detected in Medieval Book.”)

The Mycenaeans appear to have used Linear B to record only economic matters of interest to the ruling elite. Fittingly, the markings on the front of the Iklaina tablet appear to form a verb that relates to manufacturing, the researchers say. The back lists names alongside numbers—probably a property list.

Because these records tended to be saved for only a single fiscal year, the clay wasn’t made to last, said Cosmopoulos, whose work was funded in part by the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration. (The Society owns National Geographic News.)

“Those tablets were not baked, only dried in the sun and [were], therefore, very brittle. … Basically someone back then threw the tablet in the pit and then burned their garbage,” he said. “This fire hardened and preserved the tablet.”

(Related: “Oldest Writing in New World Discovered, Scientists Say.”)

Not the Oldest Writing

While the Iklaina tablet is an example of the earliest writing system in Europe, other writing is much older, explained Classics professor Thomas Palaima, who wasn’t involved in the study, which is to be published in the April issue of the journal Proceedings of the Athens Archaeological Society.

For example, writings found in China, Mesopotamia, and Egypt are thought to date as far back as 3,000 B.C.

Linear B itself is thought to have descended from an older, still undeciphered writing system known as Linear A. And archeologists think Linear A is related to the older hieroglyph system used by the ancient Egyptians.

(Also see “Oldest Hebrew Text Is Evidence for Bible Stories?”)

Magical, Mysterious Writing

Still, the Iklaina tablet is an “extraordinary find,” said Palaima, an expert in Mycenaean tablets and administration at the University of Texas-Austin.

In addition to its sheer age, the artifact could provide insights about how ancient Greek kingdoms were organized and administered, he added.

For example, archaeologists previously thought such tablets were created and kept exclusively at major state capitals, or “palatial centers,” such as Pylos and Mycenae.

Found in the ruins of a second-tier town, the Iklaina tablet could indicate that literacy and bureaucracy during the late Mycenaean period were less centralized than previously thought.

Palaima added that the ability to read and write was extremely restricted during the Mycenaean period and was regarded by most people as “magical or mysterious.”

It would be some 400 to 600 years before the written word was demystified in Greece, as the ancient Greek alphabet overtook Linear B and eventually evolved into the 26 letters used on this page.

希臘垃圾坑 發現歐洲最古碑文考古學家在希臘南部一處垃圾坑內,發現超過三千年前的泥板碑文,據信為已知歐洲最古老的文字。法新社 美國研究人員五日宣布,在希臘南部一處老舊垃圾坑發現歷史超過三千年、歐洲最古老的泥板碑文,且字跡仍清晰可辨。 密蘇里大學聖路易分校考古學教授科斯莫波勒斯(Michael Cosmopoulos)表示,這塊碑文的歷史,較之前的發現還早了近一百年。 碑文中顯然是消失已久的一個美錫尼小鎮的金融紀錄。碑文一面是名單及數字,另一面則是與生產製造有關的動詞。 科斯莫波勒斯表示:「這是希臘出土的最古老碑文,當然也是歐洲出土歷史最悠久的碑文。」 碑文上刻的「線形文字B」,是比古希臘文更早的美錫尼人所使用的文字。美錫尼文化屬於青銅器時代文化,也是古希臘詩人荷馬在敘事史詩「伊里亞德」中所述特洛伊戰爭時期,及自公元前一千六百年起即盛行於希臘多數地區的文化。 目前為止,僅在美錫尼、泰利安及底比斯等處的少數主要宮殿發現這類碑文。科斯莫波勒斯指出,在希臘伊克連納村發現這碑文,意味官僚體制及讀寫能力較已知時期發生的更廣且更早。 這項考古新發現將由雅典考古學會出版,碑文則另由首度破解其文字的德州休士頓大學美錫尼文專家夏莫戴爾(Cynthia Shelmerdine)發表。 【2011/04/07 聯合報】 比先前考古紀錄 早100年 希臘這塊泥版…寫三千年前財務 • 2011-04-07 • 中國時報 • 【潘勛/法新社五日電】  美國考古團隊在希臘南部發現的一塊泥板,上頭鐫有距今逾三千年的文字。經解讀後,咸信為歐洲最古老的文字,屬於古希臘詩人荷馬(Homer)史詩《伊里亞德》(Iliad)描述的邁錫尼(Mycenaean)文明。  研究主持人密蘇里大學聖路易分校考古學教授柯斯莫波勒斯五日表示,這塊泥板顯然是財務紀錄,一面寫有姓名及數字,另一面則寫有跟產製有關的動詞。泥板源自一個佚失已久的邁錫尼城鎮,比起先前最古老的考古學文字發現還要早約一百年。  這塊泥板出土地點在伯羅奔尼撒半島西部山村伊克連納附近,泥板擱在一處垃圾坑裡,能留存下來純粹是運氣好,因當時有人放火燒垃圾坑,而烤硬泥板。  泥板鐫寫的是邁錫尼人使用的「線形文字B」(Linear B),比古希臘文還早。邁錫尼文化屬青銅器文化,公元前一六○○年起盛行於希臘泰半地區。  美國團隊自二○○六年開始這項考古活動,挖掘出一處遭摧毀的大型建築物遺址,有梯狀擋土牆、帶狀彫刻及先進排水系統,顯然是邁錫尼文化早期宮殿及城鎮,年代在公元前一五五○年到一四○○年之間。  柯斯莫波勒斯表示,伊克連納村這項發現是希臘及歐洲已知最古老的鐫字泥板,其存在意味人類的官僚體系及文字書寫,比世人原先認定的要更普遍、更古老。 http://news.chinatimes.com/reading/110513/112011040700150.html 歐洲最古老文字 希臘出土 【大紀元記者姜靜綜合報道】美國研究人員當地時間5日宣稱,在希臘南部一處老舊垃圾坑,發現歷史逾3,500年之久,歐洲最古老且字跡仍清晰可辨的泥板碑文。據中央社報道,碑文中顯然是消失已久的一個美錫尼人(Mycenaean)小鎮的金融紀錄。 密蘇里大學聖路易分校考古學教授科斯莫波勒斯(Michael Cosmopoulos)表示,碑文大約是在公元前1450年至公元前1350年之間刻的。他說:「這是希臘出土的最古老碑文,當然也是歐洲出土歷史最悠久的碑文。」 碑文上刻的線形文字B,是比古希臘文更早的美錫尼人所使用的文字,美錫尼人文化是青銅器時代文化,也是古希臘詩人荷馬(Homer)在敘事史詩「伊里亞德」(Iliad)中所述特洛伊戰爭時期及自公元前1600年起即盛行於希臘多數地區的文化。 他說:「在希臘伊克連納村發現這碑文,意味官僚體制及讀寫能力較已知時期發生的更廣且更早。」至目前為止,僅在美錫尼、泰利安及底比斯少數主要宮殿發現這些碑文。 他表示,國家地理新聞報道的這一新發現,將由雅典考古學會出版,碑文則另由首度破解這文字的德州休士頓大學美錫尼文專家夏莫戴爾發表。◇ http://hk.epochtimes.com/11/4/7/134951.htm

ATHENS: A clay tablet over 3,000 years old that is considered Europe’s oldest readable text has been found in an ancient refuse pit in southern Greece, a US-based researcher claimed on Tuesday.

The tablet, an apparent financial record from a long-lost Mycenaean town, is about a century older than previous discoveries, said Michael Cosmopoulos, an archaeology professor at the University of Missouri-St Louis.

“On one side it has a list of names and numbers, on the other a verb relating to manufacture,” Cosmopoulos told AFP by email.

“It is the oldest tablet from a stratified deposit from the Greek mainland, and consequently from Europe,” he said.

The sun-dried tablet was found near the hilltop village of Iklaina in the western Peloponnese peninsula, surviving purely by accident when the refuse pit was set on fire and baked the clay.

The inscription it bears is in Linear B, a form of writing that predates ancient Greek and was used by the Mycenaeans, a Bronze Age culture that waged the Trojan War in Homer’s Iliad and dominated much of Greece from 1600 BCE.

The excavation supervised by the Athens Archaeological Society and partly funded by the National Geographic Society began in 2006.

It has uncovered the destroyed remains of a large building complex with massive terrace walls, frescoes and an advanced drainage system, apparently an early Mycenaean palace and town dated to 1550-1400 BCE.

Cosmopoulos, who heads the project, said the site was apparently destroyed around 1400 BCE and conquered by the neighbouring kingdom of Pylos, whose legendary ruler King Nestor is mentioned in the Iliad.

“The existence of the tablet at Iklaina suggests that bureaucracy and literacy were more widespread and more ancient than we had previously thought,” Cosmopoulos said.

“Until now, tablets had been known only from a handful of major palaces Mycenae, Tiryns, Thebes,” he said.

The finds from the dig, published in National Geographic News, are to be published by the Athens Archaeological Society, while the tablet will be presented separately by Cynthia Shelmerdine, a Mycenaean script expert at the University of Austin, Texas, who first deciphered it, Cosmopoulos said.

http://www.dawn.com/2011/04/05/europes-oldest-readable-writing-found-in-greece-researcher.html

古希臘文化——蛇與權杖的故事(圖) 作者: 林武

蛇與權杖是醫學的象徵標志,在希臘神話里,靈蛇是智慧的化身,擁有神秘的療傷能力,是治療奇跡的象徵。

在北校區的實驗大樓旁矗立著一個銅像——一位美麗的天使展開她的翅膀站立在一把沉重的銅劍上,盤曲在劍身上的是一條斷體的靈蛇。大家可能知道蛇與醫學有著莫大的聯系,蛇與權杖是醫學的象徵標志,要追溯它的起源,就得提到在歐洲巴爾乾半島南端的一個充滿智慧與浪漫色彩的國度,那就是希臘。蛇與權杖就是古希臘神話中醫神阿斯克雷皮斯(AESCULAPIUS)的信物,在希臘神話里,靈蛇是智慧的化身,擁有神秘的療傷能力,是治療奇跡的象徵。
古希臘醫學主要以巴爾乾半島東南部地中海沿岸為中心,容納包括埃及、巴比倫、亞敘以及小亞細亞西部的米諾亞(Minoa)民族的醫學,古希臘醫學很大一部分受到當時比較先進的米諾亞醫學的影響,比如米諾亞民族曾經以蛇作為宗教上的一種符號或表徵,而希臘人則以蛇作為醫學的象徵,米諾亞人使用的一種排水裝置,以後發展為希臘醫學衛生設施的一部分。到了公元前6世紀,希臘的哲學、天文學、數學等學科都有空前的發展,人們力圖從哲學角度說明宇宙的本質和來源,對世界尋求一個科學的解釋。於是出現了類似春秋時期中國的百家爭鳴現象。例如,比利圖人泰勒斯(Thales, BC4世紀),認為世界的本源是水,水是一切物質的基礎;赫拉克利特(Heracletus,BC5世紀),認為火是萬物的本源,萬物處於永恆的運動變化之中,他有句名言“人不可能兩次踏進同一條河流”。他認為宇宙的本質既不是精神,也不是神靈,宇宙是物質的;德謨克利特(Democritus,BC460—BC370)認為物質是由極小的原子(Atoi)構成的,這些原子在不斷運動著,時而結合,時而分離。他用各種原子的離合來解釋復雜多變的自然現象,這種觀點給與那些“神與宗教主宰一切”的理論以致命打擊,他的原子論和唯物主義思想,促進了以後科學的發展。其次,另一位唯物主義哲學家恩培多克勒(Empedocles,BC483—BC423),也是著名的醫生,提出一切物體都是由四種元素組成的,即火、空氣(風)、水和土(地),這四種元素以不同數量比例混合起來,成為各種性質的物體。他認為肌肉的形成,是由於四種元素等分量的混合,神經由火和土與雙倍的水結合而成,動物指甲的形成是神經與空氣接觸表面受冷的結果。骨骼由兩分水、兩分土和四分火混合而成。汗和淚是由一部分血液變來的,這血液被溫度搞得流動性較大、更精細,因而能夠流淌出來。還有一位幾乎是精通各大學科的學者——亞里斯多德(Aristotle,BC384—BC322),在他的著作《自然之階梯》中,已提出類似達爾文進化論的觀點,關於發生和遺傳提出了一些論據。曾檢驗過不少動物的屍體。可以說,亞里斯多德開始了簡單的比較解剖學。他曾以此詳細論述了動物的內臟和器官,所使用的說明圖,可以認為是最早的有記錄的解剖圖。他用於記錄子宮的英文名稱,被稍加改動沿用至今。他在解剖學方面,記錄過動物“胃反芻”現象;對於某些魚類也曾進行過較深入的研究;對於大靜脈的分支和哺乳動物臂部的表淺血管也留下了相當準確的記載,且指出多數靜脈與動脈相伴行;他還介紹了節肢動物的生殖器官和消化器官。雖然他的很多觀點由於當時思想的局限,都是錯誤的,但他的研究由此開啟了人類生物醫學探索的大門。
談到古希臘醫學,就不得不提到被尊稱為“醫學之父”的希波克拉底(Hippocrates,BC460—BC377),他大約生於公元前460年希臘的科斯島,家世行醫,父親和祖父都是著名的醫生。據傳說他父系家族的祖先是醫神(Aesclapius)的後代,母系家族是Hercules(希臘神話中的大力士)的後代。希波克拉底年輕時受到家庭影響,以後巡游各地兼行醫,講述醫學知識,他的足跡遍布小亞細亞的各個都市。後來在科斯學校中做了一名教師,講授醫學課程,約公元前377年逝世於傑散里的拉西撤。希波克拉底留給後世的最具影響力的是他的“四體液學說”和醫學誓言。他的“四體液學說”認為有機體的生命決定於四種體液:血液、粘液、黃膽汁和黑膽汁,四種原始本質的不同配合是四種液體的基礎,每一種液體又與一定的“氣質”象適應,每一個人的氣質取決於他體內占優勢的那種液體。如熱是血的基礎,來自心,若血占優勢,則屬於多血質。四種體液平衡,則身體健康,反之則多病。而希波克拉底的醫學誓言,就是時至今日,仍然有其深遠的意義。“凡教給我醫術的人,我應像尊敬自己的父母一樣,尊敬他……我願在我的判斷力所及的範圍內,盡我的能力,遵守為病人謀利益的道德原則,並杜絕一切墮落及害人的行為……”他的誓言要求知恩圖報,要求為病人謀利益,不害人,對待病人要不分貴賤,一視同仁,這些思想反映了古希臘思想家自發的辯證觀點,在後來另一位偉大的醫學家蓋侖(Galon)的推動下發揚光大,統治了西方醫學近兩千年,直到十八世紀才逐漸被細胞生物學說所取代,其經典猶如中國的儒家思想。

在那原始的時代,古希臘人用其天性卓越的想象力和強烈的求知欲望,對自然的各種現象,對人的生死,進行不斷的思索,不斷幻想,編造出各種故事,在後人的編輯整理後,形成《希臘神話》,醫學的許多名詞與希臘神話的神有千絲萬縷的關系。

跟骨腱(ACHILLES TENDON)——阿奇里斯

ACHILLES是希臘的英雄人物,是海中仙女特狄絲的兒子,也是天神宙斯的曾孫。他的母親希望她的兒子不為刀箭所傷,在他很小的時候,就把他浸入地獄的一條河里,這樣能使他刀箭不入。由於他母親是提著他的腳跟把他浸入河里的,因此,腳跟的部分沒有浸到河水,成了他唯一的弱點。後代的解剖學家,就把腳後跟叫做阿奇里斯肌腱。

第一頸椎——ATLAS

ATLAS是希臘神話里的巨人,當天神宙斯和其父親克羅那斯(CRONUS)爭王位時,幫助克羅那斯來對抗宙斯。從而遭到宙斯的處罰,適用自己的頭、肩膀和手作為支柱來支撐著天,不讓其陷落。第一頸椎把頭撐住,猶如ATLAS頂住天一樣,所以ATLAS來命名第一頸椎。

脈周靜脈曲張(CAPUT MEDUSA)——蛇發女妖

希臘神話記載,在果爾岡住著三個蛇發的女妖,是所有各種妖怪的祖先,頭發變成了蛇,指甲變成老鷹的爪子,而且長了翅膀,任何人被他們看了一眼,就會變成石頭。其中兩個,是不死之身,像豬一般難看,另外一個長得很漂亮,可是和人一樣死,叫著梅杜莎。培修斯(PERAEUS)藉著女神雅典娜和天神使者漢米斯(HERMES)賜予的盾牌、寶劍和會飛的羽毛靴子,並向支撐著天空的ATLAS巨人問路,借了隱身蓑衣,把MEDUSA頭砍下,成為英雄人物。肝硬化的病人,因門靜脈壓力過高,引起肚臍周圍靜脈曲張,就像一條條小蛇成放射狀排列,故以蛇女頭來形容。

自戀症(NARCISSISM)——那西塞斯

NARCISSUS是一個金發藍眼的美少年,他有個雙胞胎的妹妹,年輕時就去世了。有一天,他坐在泉水旁,註視著水面,思念著過世的妹妹,瞧見正仰頭看著自己的妹妹臉孔,當然那只是自己的水中倒影罷了。從此以後,他天天走到泉水旁凝視著水中倒影,悼念他的妹妹。最後,眾神覺得他很可憐,就把他變成一株水仙花(NARCISSUS)。精神學者就把有自戀傾向的症狀叫做NARCISSISM。

回音症——ECHOLALIA

原名ECHOLALIA是個極為饒舌的女神,她非常喜歡模仿別人所說的最後一句話。有一天,她對偉大的朱諾女神說話太無理了,朱諾就把她變成鸚鵡,躲在森林中,只能反復說自己聽到的話。精神分裂症的病人,有時亦有模仿語言的症狀,因此叫回音症為ECHOLALIA。

醫學的標志——蛇與權杖

常見到醫學院校、醫學雜志、醫學圖書、醫療行政機關的標志,都常出現蛇與權杖。有的只有一條蛇,有的是兩條蛇盤繞樹杖而上,有的再加上一對翅膀等,這也是由希臘神話里演變而來的。希臘人認為蛇是智慧的化身,擁有神秘的療傷能力,是治療奇跡的象徵。醫神阿斯克雷皮斯(Aesclapius)手持權杖,上面纏著一條蛇,他是太陽神阿波羅的兒子,希臘很多奉祀他的神廟肩負起診所和醫院的功能。僧醫為使阿斯克雷皮斯能給病人啟示,用各種方法來引導病人入夢,隔天即可痊愈。他們並在廟里飼養聖蛇,使治療儀式更神秘,馴服的蛇靈巧地扭到病人身旁舔他傷口,權杖頂端長著翅膀,和現代軍醫的標志一模一樣。不過,他並不會醫術,他的“使者權杖”,可以開啟人與神間的門,具有調和任何沖突的魔力。古典學者認為醫神阿斯克雷皮斯只有一條蛇的權杖,才真正是醫學的象徵。

http://www.newsancai.com/index.php/big5/world/278-beliefs/31047-2010-11-21-02-23-13.html

重溫神話:舊約聖經創世紀篇(中英對照)

http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/8/12/26/n2375683.htm

又到了一年一度的耶誕假期,世界各地都能夠感受到節慶的氣氛,特別是在商業促銷的推波助瀾下。耶誕節能夠沿續至今,當然也不會是件簡單或偶然的事情。耶誕節已經成了人類文化、生活方式之一,但耶誕樹、耶誕禮物與耶誕派對,就是代表耶誕節了嗎?當然不是,回顧人類的歷史,耶誕節最深刻的意義,就是昭告世人:God is coming! (神來了!)

在此耶誕假期,我們將選錄英文舊約與新約聖經中的部份章節,並作字彙上的註解,與讀者們“重溫神話”!首先讓我們先來讀一讀舊約聖經創世紀篇─神六日創世、第七日安息的故事。
Old Testament – Genesis

Genesis :創世紀

1:1 At the first God made the heaven and the earth.
起初神創造天地。

1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
地是空虛混沌,淵面黑暗,神的靈運行在水面上。

1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
神說:要有光,就有了光。

1:4 And God, looking on the light, saw that it was good: and God made a division between the light and the dark,
神看光是好的,就把光暗分開了。

1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
神稱光為晝,稱暗為夜,有晚上、有早晨,這是頭一日。

1:6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
神說:諸水之間要有蒼穹,將水分為上、下。

1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
神就造出空氣,將空氣以下的水,空氣以上的水分開了,事就這樣成了。

1:8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. 
神稱蒼穹為天,有晚上、有早晨、是第二日。

1:9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven come together in one place, and let the dry land be seen: and it was so.
神說:天下的水要聚在一處,使乾地露出來,事就這樣成了。

1:10 And God gave the dry land the name of Earth; and the waters together in their place were named Seas: and God saw that it was good.
神稱旱地為地,稱水的聚處為海,神看著覺得很好。

1:11 And God said, Let grass come up on the earth, and plants producing seed, and fruit-trees giving fruit, in which is their seed, after their sort: and it was so.
神說:地要長出青草和結種子的菜蔬,並有結果子的樹木,各從其類,果子 都包著核,事就這樣成了。

1:12 And grass came up on the earth, and every plant producing seed of its sort, and every tree producing fruit, in which is its seed, of its sort: and God saw that it was good.
於是地發生了青草,和結種子的菜蔬,各從其類,並結果子的樹木,各從其類,果子都包著核。神看著覺得挺好的。

1:13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.
有晚上,有早晨,是第三日。
1. void: 空

2.division: 分開

3. Firmament: 蒼穹

4. grass: 青草

5. plant: 植物

6. seed: 種子
1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the arch of heaven, for a division between the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for marking the changes of the year, and for days and for years:
神說:天上要有光體,可以分晝夜,作記號,定節令、日子、年歲

1:15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
並要發光在天空,普照在地上,事就這樣成了。

1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
於是神造了兩個大光,大的管晝,小的管夜,又造眾星。

1:17 And God put them in the arch of heaven, to give light on the earth;
神就把這些光擺列在天空,普照在地上,

1:18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
管理晝夜,分別明暗,神看著覺得很好。

1:19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.
有晚上,有早晨,是第四日。

1:20 And God said, Let the waters be full of living things, and let birds be in flight over the earth under the arch of heaven.
神說,水要多多滋生有生命的事物,要有雀鳥飛在地面以上,天空之中。

1:21 And God made great sea-beasts, and every sort of living and moving thing with which the waters were full, and every sort of winged bird: and God saw that it was good. 
神就造出大魚,和水中所滋生各樣有生命的動物,各從其類,又造出各樣飛 鳥,各從其類,神看著是好的。

1:22 And God gave them his blessing, saying, Be fertile and have increase, making all the waters of the seas full, and let the birds be increased in the earth. 
神就賜福給這一切,說:滋生繁多,充滿海中的水,雀鳥也要多生在地上。

1:23 And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.
有晚上,有早晨,是第五日。

1:24 And God said, Let the earth give birth to all sorts of living things, cattle and all things moving on the earth, and beasts of the earth after their sort: and it was so.
神說,地要生出活物來,各從其類,牲畜,昆蟲,野獸,各從其類,事就這 樣成了。

1:25 And God made the beast of the earth after its sort, and the cattle after their sort, and everything moving on the face of the earth after its sort: and God saw that it was good.
於是神造出野獸,各從其類,牲畜,各從其類,地上一切昆蟲,從其類,神看著是好的。

1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, like us: and let him have rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over the cattle and over all the earth and over every living thing which goes flat on the earth.
神說,我們要照著我們的形像,按著我們的樣式造人,使他們管理海裡的魚,空中的鳥,地上的牛,以及地上所爬的一切生物。

1:27 And God made man in his image, in the image of God he made him: male and female he made them. 
神就照著自己的形像造人,乃是照著他的形像造男造女。

1:28 And God gave them his blessing and said to them, Be fertile and have increase, and make the earth full and be masters of it; be rulers over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing moving on the earth.
神就賜福給他們,又對他們說,要生養眾多,遍滿地面,治理這地,也要管理海裡的魚,空中的鳥,和地上各樣行動的生物。

1:29 And God said, See, I have given you every plant producing seed, on the face of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit producing seed: they will be for your food.
神說,看哪,我將遍地上一切結種子的菜蔬,和一切樹上所結有核的果子,全賜給你們作食物。

1:30 And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the air and every living thing moving on the face of the earth I have given every green plant for food: and it was so.
至於地上的走獸,和空中的飛鳥,並各樣爬在地上有生命的物 ,我將青草賜給他們作食物,事就這樣成了。

1:31 And God saw everything which he had made and it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
神看著一切所造的都甚好,有晚上,有早晨,是第六日。

2:1 And the heaven and the earth and all things in them were complete.
天地萬物都造齊了。

2:2 And on the seventh day God came to the end of all his work; and on the seventh day he took his rest from all the work which he had done.
到第七日,神造物的工作已經完畢,就在第七日歇了他一切的工作,安息了。

2:3 And God gave his blessing to the seventh day and made it holy: because on that day he took his rest from all the work which he had made and done. 
神賜福給第七日,定為聖日,因為在這日神歇了他一切創造的工,就安息了。

2:4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.
創造天地的來歷,在神造天地的日子,乃是這樣。
1.beasts: n. 野獸

2. sort: n. 種類

3.cattle: n. 牛

4.flat: adv. 平坦地

5. blessing: n. 祝福

6. fertile : adj. 肥沃的

7. plant: n. 植物

(http://www.dajiyuan.com)

Why read the classics?

為什麼讀經典

著者 卡爾維諾 (Calvino, Italo, 1923-1985), 

Why read the classics? / Italo Calvino ; translated by Martin McLaughlin.

長庚大學 三樓中文書區 812 8442 94

 

  1. The classics are the books of which we usually hear people say, “I am rereading . . . ” and never “I am reading . . . “
  2. We use the words “classics” for books that are treasured by those who have read and loved them; but they are treasured no less by those who have the luck to read them for the first time in the best conditions to enjoy them
  3. The classics are books that exert a peculiar influence, both when they refuse to be eradicated from the mind and when they conceal themselves in the folds of memory, camouflaging themselves as the collective or individual unconscious.
  4. Every rereading of a classic is as much a voyage of discovery as the first reading.
  5. Every reading of a classic is in fact a rereading.
  6. A classic is a book that has never finished saying what it has to say.
  7. The classics are the books that come down to us bearing the traces of readings previous to ours, and bringing in their wake the traces they themselves have left on the culture or cultures they have passed through (or, more simply, on language and customs).
  8. A classic does not necessarily teach us anything we did not know before. In a classic we sometimes discover something we have always known (or thought we knew), but without knowing that this author said it first, or at least is associated with it in a special way. And this, too, is a surprise that gives much pleasure, such as we always gain from the discovery of an origin, a relationship, an affinity.
  9. The classics are books which, upon reading, we find even fresher, more unexpected, and more marvelous than we had thought from hearing about them.

10. We use the word “classic” of a book that takes the form of an equivalent to the universe, on a level with the ancient talismans. With this definition we are approaching the idea of the “total book,” as Mallarmé conceived of it.

11. Your classic author is the one you cannot feel indifferent to, who helps you to define yourself in relation to him, even in dispute with him.

12. A classic is a book that comes before other classics; but anyone who has read the others first, and then reads this one, instantly recognizes its place in the family tree.

13. A classic is something that tends to relegate the concerns of the moment to the status of background noise, but at the same time this background noise is something we cannot do without.

14. A classic is something that persists as a background noise even when the most incompatible momentary concerns are in control of the situation.

Italo Calvino
“Why Read the Classics” (excerpt)
from The Uses of Literature

 

Your classic author is the one you cannot feel indifferent to, who helps you to define yourself in relation to him, even in dispute with him.”

“There is nothing for it but for all of us to invent our own ideal libraries of classics. I would say that such a library ought to be composed half of books we have read and that have really counted for us, and half of books we propose to read and presume will come to count—leaving a section of empty shelves for surprises and occasional discoveries.”

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.